In the 1980s, the success of local productions of Cats in Tokyo,[161] Sydney,[330] Vienna, Hamburg,[173] and Toronto were turning points that established these cities (and their respective countries) as major commercial markets in the global theatrical circuit.[331] The musical was also a boon for the Broadway touring industry. In 1997, The New York Times credited the regional and touring productions of Cats with "almost single-handedly reviv[ing] the sagging road business".[332] Cats revolutionised the touring business by introducing the now commonplace practice of extended touring engagements that can last several weeks or months in a single city, as opposed to the typical one-week or ten-day tour stop. Mackintosh's insistence that all touring productions of Cats replicate the Broadway production also resulted in the expansion and upgrading of regional theatre venues to accommodate the musical's demanding logistical requirements, as local theatre owners did not want to miss out on the opportunity to host the lucrative show.[333]
The show was staged at the Det Ny Teater in Copenhagen, Denmark, in the 2002–2003 season.[201] This Danish production was translated by Adam Price and was one of the largest theatrical productions ever mounted in the country at the time with 100 performers, musicians and stagehands.[202] The first non-replica production of Cats was approved for a Polish production at the Teatr Muzyczny Roma in Warsaw.[203] Set in an abandoned film studio instead of a junkyard, the Polish version opened in January 2004 and closed in 2010.[204][205][206] The Gothenburg opera house staged a production with a Swedish-language script by Ingela Forsman; this version was reimagined to take place in an abandoned fairground and played from September 2006 to February 2007.[207] Other productions were also staged at the Divadlo Milenium in Prague from 2004 to 2005,[188] and a Norwegian revival at the Chat Noir in Oslo in 2009.[208] The first Italian-language production toured Italy in the 2009–2010 season.[209]
In the original London production, Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer were characters in their own right and sang their eponymous song themselves as a singsong-style duet. When the show transferred to Broadway, the song was instead sung in the third-person, with Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer as puppets being magically controlled by Mr. Mistoffelees. Their number was also rewritten to be faster and more upbeat, alternating between vaudeville-style verses and a "manic patter" section. Eventually, the Broadway version of the song was rewritten to allow Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer to once again sing their own song as full characters.[388]
The development of Cats was also plagued by financial troubles. Mackintosh struggled to raise the £450,000 ($1.16 million[27]) needed to stage the musical in the West End as major investors were sceptical of the show's premise and refused to back it. Lloyd Webber personally underwrote the musical and took out a second mortgage on his house for the down payment of the theatre. He later recalled that if Cats had been a commercial failure, it would have left him in financial ruin.[28] The remaining capital was eventually financed by small investments procured from 220 individuals through newspaper advertisements.[1][12] After the musical became a massive hit, the rate of return for these investors was estimated to have exceeded 3,500%.[29]

Meanwhile, the Carré Theatre in Amsterdam, Netherlands, staged the musical in 1987 (with Ruth Jacott as Grizabella[196]), 1988 and from 1992 to 1993.[197] Cats made its French debut at the Théâtre de Paris from February 1989 to April 1990,[120] with an original cast that included Gilles Ramade as Old Deuteronomy.[198] The show was also produced in Zürich at the ABB Musical Theatre from 1991 to 1993,[199] while a production by Joop van den Ende and the Royal Ballet of Flanders was staged at the Stadsschouwburg Antwerpen in Belgium in 1996.[200] An English/German-language "Eurotour" production also toured the region from May 1994 to December 1995.[174]
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Feeding a kitten isn’t as easy as grabbing a bag of cat chow at the nearest convenience store. Growing kittens need as much as three times more calories and nutrients than adult cats. That’s why it’s important to find a good quality food designed especially for kittens. A name brand food, formulated for kittens, is the simplest way to ensure that your kitty gets the proper nourishment without supplements. Also, check to make sure your kitten’s food includes a statement from the Association of Animal Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) displayed on the packaging, ensuring the food is nutritionally complete.
^ Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
You receive (1) one copy of the Deluxe Edition of Magical Kitties Save the Day, including Power Cards, custom dice, wooden tokens, Magical Kitties & The Alien Invasion, and all of the stretch goals unlocked during the campaign. (See Backer Level chart on the campaign page for specific content.) If you will want your rewards shipped to an address in Canada, please select this reward.

Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[204] Their habitats include small islands with no human inhabitants.[205] The close relatives of the domestic cat, the African wildcat (Felis lybica) and the sand cat (F. margarita) both inhabit desert environments.[42] Domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[103]
The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]

Besides Japan, Cats is also produced regularly in other parts of Asia. The region has hosted numerous English-language productions of the musical, beginning with a tour from 1993 to 1994 when it played in Singapore (with local actress Jacintha Abisheganaden as Grizabella),[248] Hong Kong and South Korea.[249] Cats returned to Asia from 2002 to 2004 when it visited Malaysia,[250] South Korea,[251] Shanghai,[252] Taipei and Beijing;[253][254][255] the 2004 cast included Slindile Nodangala in the role of Grizabella.[254] A touring company visited Asia again between 2007 and 2010, including stops in Taiwan,[205] Macau, and Thailand in 2007;[256] South Korea from 2007 to 2009;[257] China in 2008;[258] Singapore and Hong Kong in 2009 (with Delia Hannah playing Grizabella);[238][259][260] and Manila in 2010 (with Lea Salonga as Grizabella).[261] Cats toured Asia again from 2014 to 2015, making stops in South Korea, Singapore and Macau.[262] Two years later, another international tour was launched and is scheduled to run through 2020, with visits to South Korea from 2017 to 2018,[263] Hong Kong[264] and Taiwan in 2018,[265] China in 2018 (with Joanna Ampil as Grizabella) and 2019,[266][267] and planned stops in the Philippines and Singapore in 2019, and Malaysia in 2020.[267]


Cats is completely told through music with no dialogue in between the songs,[74] although there are occasions when the music accompanies spoken verse. Lloyd Webber's compositions employ an eclectic range of musical styles so as to magnify the characters' contrasting personalities.[4] For example, the rebellious Rum Tum Tugger is introduced with a rock song ("The Rum Tum Tugger"); the fallen Grizabella is accompanied by a dramatic operatic aria ("Grizabella: The Glamour Cat"); Old Deuteronomy makes his grand entrance to a lullaby-turned-anthem ("Old Deuteronomy"); and Gus' nostalgia for the past is reflected through an old-fashioned music hall number ("Gus: The Theatre Cat").[16] Many of the songs are pastiches of their respective genres, which Snelson attributes to the show's origins as a song cycle:
The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]

The musical first played in Mexico from April 1991 to November 1992;[120] the Spanish-language production performed over 400 shows and starred María del Sol as Grizabella,[130] Manuel Landeta as Munkustrap,[131] Susana Zabaleta as Jellylorum, Maru Dueñas as Sillabub and Ariel López Padilla as Macavity.[132] A revival premiered at the Teatro San Rafael in May 2013, with an opening night cast that included Filippa Giordano as Grizabella, Landeta, and Maru Dueñas.[133] After a total of 350 performances, the show closed at the Teatro San Rafael in June 2014,[134] and then toured over 36 cities in Mexico until December 2014.[135][136] Other performers who later joined the production included Lisset,[137] Rocío Banquells,[138] Lila Deneken and Myriam Montemayor Cruz, all of whom played Grizabella.[139] Another Mexican revival was launched at the Coyoacán Centennial Theater in October 2018, with Yuri as Grizabella and Landeta as Old Deuteronomy.[131][140] The revival marked its 200th performance in May 2019.[141]


The sex of kittens is usually easy to determine at birth. By six to eight weeks they are harder to sex because of the growth of fur in the genital region. The male's urethral opening is round, whereas the female's urethral opening is a slit. Another marked difference is the distance between anus and urethral opening, which is greater in males than in females.[15]
After the overture, the cats gather on stage and describe the Jellicle tribe and its purpose ("Jellicle Songs for Jellicle Cats"). The cats (who break the fourth wall throughout the show) then notice that they are being watched by a human audience, and proceed to explain how the different cats of the tribe are named ("The Naming of Cats"). This is followed by a ballet solo performed by Victoria to signal the beginning of the Jellicle Ball ("The Invitation to the Jellicle Ball"). At this moment, Munkustrap, the show's main narrator, explains that tonight the Jellicle patriarch Old Deuteronomy will make an appearance and choose one of the cats to be reborn into a new life on the Heaviside Layer.
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[163] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[164][165] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[161]:153

The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggests the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[25] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[26] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[25] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[27] In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a Wanderwort.
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