Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[86] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[87] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[88] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[89] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[90]

Cats can synthesize niacin, but their breakdown exceeds the rate that it can be synthesized and thus, have a higher need for it, which can be fulfilled through an animal-based diet.[24] Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is required in increased amounts seeing as it is needed to produce amino acids.[24] To continue, vitamin B12 is an AAFCO-recommended vitamin essential in the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein and maintains a healthy nervous system, healthy mucous membranes, healthy muscle and heart function and in general, promotes normal growth and development.[42] Choline is also a AAFCO recommended ingredient for kittens, which is important for neurotransmission in the brain and as a component of membrane phospholipids.[24] Biotin is another AAFCO-recommended vitamin to support thyroid and adrenal glands and the reproductive and nervous systems.[24] Kittens also require riboflavin (vitamin B2) for heart health, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and folacin.[42]
After the overture, the cats gather on stage and describe the Jellicle tribe and its purpose ("Jellicle Songs for Jellicle Cats"). The cats (who break the fourth wall throughout the show) then notice that they are being watched by a human audience, and proceed to explain how the different cats of the tribe are named ("The Naming of Cats"). This is followed by a ballet solo performed by Victoria to signal the beginning of the Jellicle Ball ("The Invitation to the Jellicle Ball"). At this moment, Munkustrap, the show's main narrator, explains that tonight the Jellicle patriarch Old Deuteronomy will make an appearance and choose one of the cats to be reborn into a new life on the Heaviside Layer.

Meanwhile, the Carré Theatre in Amsterdam, Netherlands, staged the musical in 1987 (with Ruth Jacott as Grizabella[196]), 1988 and from 1992 to 1993.[197] Cats made its French debut at the Théâtre de Paris from February 1989 to April 1990,[120] with an original cast that included Gilles Ramade as Old Deuteronomy.[198] The show was also produced in Zürich at the ABB Musical Theatre from 1991 to 1993,[199] while a production by Joop van den Ende and the Royal Ballet of Flanders was staged at the Stadsschouwburg Antwerpen in Belgium in 1996.[200] An English/German-language "Eurotour" production also toured the region from May 1994 to December 1995.[174]


Once your vet has cleared your kitten as free of disease and parasites, it’s safe to let your new kitten explore its new surroundings and other pet roommates. Handling and playing with your kitten at least once a day will help him form a strong emotional bond with you. If you have children, monitor their introduction to the new kitten to make sure it’s a positive experience for both the kitten and child.
The musical first played in Mexico from April 1991 to November 1992;[120] the Spanish-language production performed over 400 shows and starred María del Sol as Grizabella,[130] Manuel Landeta as Munkustrap,[131] Susana Zabaleta as Jellylorum, Maru Dueñas as Sillabub and Ariel López Padilla as Macavity.[132] A revival premiered at the Teatro San Rafael in May 2013, with an opening night cast that included Filippa Giordano as Grizabella, Landeta, and Maru Dueñas.[133] After a total of 350 performances, the show closed at the Teatro San Rafael in June 2014,[134] and then toured over 36 cities in Mexico until December 2014.[135][136] Other performers who later joined the production included Lisset,[137] Rocío Banquells,[138] Lila Deneken and Myriam Montemayor Cruz, all of whom played Grizabella.[139] Another Mexican revival was launched at the Coyoacán Centennial Theater in October 2018, with Yuri as Grizabella and Landeta as Old Deuteronomy.[131][140] The revival marked its 200th performance in May 2019.[141]
Cats is based on T. S. Eliot's 1939 poetry book Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats, with the songs in the musical consisting of Eliot's verse set to music by Andrew Lloyd Webber.[1] The musical is unusual in terms of its construction; along with Eliot's poems, music and dance are the main focus of the show at the expense of a traditional narrative structure.[2] Musicologists William Everett and Paul Laird described Cats as "combining elements of the revue and concept musical".[3] The plot centres on a tribe of cats called the Jellicles, as they come together at the annual Jellicle Ball to decide which one of them will ascend to the Heaviside Layer (their version of heaven) and be reborn into a new life.[4] The bulk of the musical consists of the different contenders being introduced, either by themselves or by other cats.[5]
"Cats" first premiered on London's West End 38 years ago and the hit musical, which also ran on Broadway for 18 years, will soon be back and bigger than ever — on the silver screen, that is. The first trailer for the upcoming "Cats" film was revealed on Friday, and fans got a glimpse of what Jennifer Hudson, Taylor Swift and other stars look like as singing and dancing felines.

The 2014 London revival introduced several modernizations to the show. Rum Tum Tugger was reworked and changed from a ladies-man rockstar to a breakdancing street cat. His eponymous musical number was also turned into a rap.[389][390] The 2015 Australian tour and 2015 Paris production also used the new version of the character; however, the 2016 Broadway revival did not.
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[121] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[122] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[120]
"Growltiger's Last Stand" has been criticised as being racially offensive. The original lyrics, taken directly from the Eliot poem it is based on, included the ethnic slur "Chinks" and this was later replaced with the word "Siamese".[32] The number also originally involved the cast putting on "Asian accents" to portray the Siamese cats.[305] In the 1998 video version, the entire scene featuring Growltiger was cut.[387] By 2016, "Growltiger's Last Stand" had been removed completely from the US and UK productions of the show.[32]
To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
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If you’re a roleplayer with years of experience, Magical Kitties makes it easy to introduce your friends and family your favorite hobby. But if you’ve never played a roleplaying game before, Magical Kitties Save the Day makes it easy to try something new! Between The Big Adventure, “The Game Master’s First Adventure,” and the Kitty Tips! you’ll find throughout every book, it’ll be like we’re right there by your side the whole time.
The development of Cats was also plagued by financial troubles. Mackintosh struggled to raise the £450,000 ($1.16 million[27]) needed to stage the musical in the West End as major investors were sceptical of the show's premise and refused to back it. Lloyd Webber personally underwrote the musical and took out a second mortgage on his house for the down payment of the theatre. He later recalled that if Cats had been a commercial failure, it would have left him in financial ruin.[28] The remaining capital was eventually financed by small investments procured from 220 individuals through newspaper advertisements.[1][12] After the musical became a massive hit, the rate of return for these investors was estimated to have exceeded 3,500%.[29]
The original staging of Cats at the New London Theatre was considered revolutionary[85] and "one of the first truly immersive theatrical experiences".[34] Instead of a conventional proscenium, the theatre was quasi-in-the-round with a central revolving stage.[15][86] Nunn and Napier had sought to create "an environment rather than a set",[17] and around $900,000 was spent remodelling the New London in preparation for the show.[9] This included mounting sections of the stalls onto the theatre's 60 ft (18 m)[87] revolve such that the audience moved along with the stage.[16] When the show was brought to Broadway, the Winter Garden Theatre was given a similar $2 million makeover;[88] its proscenium stage was converted into a thrust, and a part of its roof was torn through to allow for the effects of Grizabella's ascension to the Heaviside Layer.[89]
Cats are naturally carnivores and require high amounts of protein in the diet. Kittens are undergoing growth and require high amounts of protein to provide essential amino acids that enable the growth of tissues and muscles.[30] It is recommended that kittens consume a diet containing approximately 30% protein on a dry matter basis for proper growth.[35]

Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean.[147] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[148] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[147]

The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggests the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[25] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[26] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[25] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[27] In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a Wanderwort.

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