The development of Cats was also plagued by financial troubles. Mackintosh struggled to raise the £450,000 ($1.16 million[27]) needed to stage the musical in the West End as major investors were sceptical of the show's premise and refused to back it. Lloyd Webber personally underwrote the musical and took out a second mortgage on his house for the down payment of the theatre. He later recalled that if Cats had been a commercial failure, it would have left him in financial ruin.[28] The remaining capital was eventually financed by small investments procured from 220 individuals through newspaper advertisements.[1][12] After the musical became a massive hit, the rate of return for these investors was estimated to have exceeded 3,500%.[29]

Cats redefined musical theatre in the German-speaking part of the world, turning an industry which then consisted of repertory theatre towards privately-funded big-budget open-ended productions. The success of the Vienna and Hamburg productions sparked a "musical boom" in the region that saw numerous musicals being launched not just in Germany but also in countries like Switzerland.[173][180] It also led to a "construction boom" in Germany as new theatrical venues were enacted all around the country.[181] Germany has since grown to become the third largest musical market after the US and UK, with Hamburg as its "musical capital".[173][180]
When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[141] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[152]
"Cats" first premiered on London's West End 38 years ago and the hit musical, which also ran on Broadway for 18 years, will soon be back and bigger than ever — on the silver screen, that is. The first trailer for the upcoming "Cats" film was revealed on Friday, and fans got a glimpse of what Jennifer Hudson, Taylor Swift and other stars look like as singing and dancing felines.
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Stage parodies of the musical have also been mounted in the West End and Off-Broadway. CAT – (THE PLAY!!!), a one-man show written by Jamie Beamish and Richard Hardwick, is a dark comedy about the fictitious life of Dave, a cat who was fired from the original London production of Cats on opening night. Starring Gerard McCarthy as Dave and with choreography by Arlene Phillips, the musical premiered at the 2014 Edinburgh Fringe Festival;[346] it performed at various regional venues before making its West End debut at the Ambassadors Theatre in April 2017.[347] Katdashians! Break the Musical!, a parody mashup of Keeping Up with the Kardashians and Cats by Bob and Tobly McSmith, premiered Off-Broadway at the Elektra Theatre in June 2016.[348] All the song parodies of Cats were later removed after accusations of copyright infringement from Lloyd Webber's representatives, who claimed the songs were being used "to parody another subject matter entirely".[349] Other stage shows that satirise Cats include Six Degrees of Separation,[344] Angels in America,[293] and The Musical of Musicals (The Musical!).[350]
Cats debuted on Broadway on 7 October 1982 at the Winter Garden Theatre with a record-breaking $6.2 million in ticket pre-sales.[27] Most of the original creative team remained, with Martin Levan replacing Jacob as the sound designer and Stanley Lebowsky replacing Rabinowitz as music director. The musical was co-produced by the original London production team, along with David Geffen and The Shubert Organization.[103] It was the most expensive Broadway show ever mounted at the time with a production cost of $5.5 million,[104] though it recouped its investment in less than 10 months.[100] On 19 June 1997, Cats overtook A Chorus Line to become the longest-running show in Broadway history with 6,138 performances.[105] At the time, the musical was found to have had an economic impact of $3.12 billion on New York City and had generated the most theatrical jobs of any single entity in Broadway history.[95] A June closing date was announced in early 2000 but was subsequently pushed back after a resulting surge in ticket sales.[106] The show closed on 10 September 2000 after a total of 13 previews and 7,485 performances.[103] One actress, Marlene Danielle, performed in the Broadway production for its entire 18-year run.[72] Its Broadway-run record was surpassed on 9 January 2006 by The Phantom of the Opera, and Cats remains Broadway's fourth-longest-running show of all time. Overall, the original Broadway production grossed approximately $388 million in ticket sales.[107]
^ Jump up to: a b Nutter, F. B.; Levine, J. F.; Stoskopf, M. K. (2004). "Reproductive capacity of free-roaming domestic cats and kitten survival rate" (PDF). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (9): 1399−1402. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.204.1281. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1399. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
November 1985 saw the premiere of a Norwegian-language production at Det Norske Teatret in Oslo. It closed in January 1987 and included performers such as Øivind Blunck, Brit Elisabeth Haagensli and Øystein Wiik.[118][193] Jorma Uotinen directed and choreographed a Finnish production at the Helsinki City Theatre that ran for over two years from September 1986 to December 1988, and featured Monica Aspelund as Grizabella, Heikki Kinnunen as Gus, and Kristiina Elstelä as Jennyanydots/Griddlebone.[194] A Swedish version of the musical opened in 1987 at the Chinateatern in Stockholm. The production was seen by 326,000 audiences before it transferred to the Scandinavium in Gothenburg two years later.[195]
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Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[133] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[160] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[161]:153
"Cats" first premiered on London's West End 38 years ago and the hit musical, which also ran on Broadway for 18 years, will soon be back and bigger than ever — on the silver screen, that is. The first trailer for the upcoming "Cats" film was revealed on Friday, and fans got a glimpse of what Jennifer Hudson, Taylor Swift and other stars look like as singing and dancing felines.

Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[103] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[103] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[111] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[111] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. Some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[112] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[113]
^ Jump up to: a b Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P. (29 January 2013). "The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States". Nature Communications. 4. Article number 1396. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4.1396L. doi:10.1038/ncomms2380. PMID 23360987. We estimate that free-ranging domestic cats kill 1.4–3.7 billion birds and 6.9–20.7 billion mammals annually.

In July 2014, Australia's Harvest Rain Theatre Company staged the biggest production of Cats in the Southern Hemisphere with over 700 performers. Produced by Tim O'Connor, the production was performed at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. Callum Mansfield directed and choreographed it, and its cast included Marina Prior as Grizabella and Steven Tandy as Bustopher Jones and Gus.[239][240] From October 2015 to May 2016, a revival toured Australia with stops in Sydney, Hobart, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Perth.[241][242] The revival featured singer-songwriter Delta Goodrem as Grizabella,[243] before Delia Hannah took over the role during the Adelaide and Perth seasons.[235][244]


Meanwhile, the Carré Theatre in Amsterdam, Netherlands, staged the musical in 1987 (with Ruth Jacott as Grizabella[196]), 1988 and from 1992 to 1993.[197] Cats made its French debut at the Théâtre de Paris from February 1989 to April 1990,[120] with an original cast that included Gilles Ramade as Old Deuteronomy.[198] The show was also produced in Zürich at the ABB Musical Theatre from 1991 to 1993,[199] while a production by Joop van den Ende and the Royal Ballet of Flanders was staged at the Stadsschouwburg Antwerpen in Belgium in 1996.[200] An English/German-language "Eurotour" production also toured the region from May 1994 to December 1995.[174]
Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[178] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[179]
Brigette Indelicato is a full-time graphic designer, art director, and creative consultant specializing in board game graphic design and logo design. Credits include War Chest, Star Trek: Galactic Enterprises, Dungeon Hustle, and Kibble Scuffle. She lives in Philadelphia with her husband and two orange cats, Dax and Odo, named after her favorite Star Trek characters. You can find her work at www.brigetteidesign.com or say hello on twitter at @brigetteidesign.
The original Viennese cast included Ute Lemper who played Bombalurina, Steve Barton who played Munkustrap, and Robert Montano who played Pouncival.[112] Pia Douwes was also a member of the cast from 1987 to 1989, covering several different characters including Grizabella.[175] The Vienna production also performed limited runs at the Komische Oper Berlin in East Germany in 1987,[176] and at the Moscow Operetta Theatre in the Soviet Union in 1988.[177]
The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[155] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[222] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[223] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[224] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[225] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
After the overture, the cats gather on stage and describe the Jellicle tribe and its purpose ("Jellicle Songs for Jellicle Cats"). The cats (who break the fourth wall throughout the show) then notice that they are being watched by a human audience, and proceed to explain how the different cats of the tribe are named ("The Naming of Cats"). This is followed by a ballet solo performed by Victoria to signal the beginning of the Jellicle Ball ("The Invitation to the Jellicle Ball"). At this moment, Munkustrap, the show's main narrator, explains that tonight the Jellicle patriarch Old Deuteronomy will make an appearance and choose one of the cats to be reborn into a new life on the Heaviside Layer.
The cat (Felis catus) is a small carnivorous mammal.[1][2] It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family.[4] The cat is either a house cat or a farm cat, which are pets, or a feral cat, which ranges freely and avoids human contact.[5] A house cat is valued by humans for companionship and for its ability to hunt rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries.[6]
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