The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggests the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[25] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[26] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[25] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[27] In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a Wanderwort.

Meanwhile, the first Canadian national production premiered in March 1985 at the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres in Toronto, Ontario. It moved to Montreal two years later and then toured other parts of Canada. By the time the production closed in August 1989, it had become the most successful Canadian stage production of all time with a box office of $78 million from nearly 2 million tickets.[118][128] A second Canadian touring company began in 2013, 28 years after the first one launched.[129]
The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[155] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[222] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[223] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[224] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[225] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
Influenced by the show's success in Vienna, a German production by Stella Entertainment premiered in April 1986 at the newly-renovated Operettenhaus in Hamburg.[173][179] It closed in January 2001 after 15 years, having played over 6,100 performances to 6.2 million audiences.[179][180] Cats was the first stage production in the country to be mounted without any public funding and was also the first to run for multiple years; its success established the medium as a profitable venture in Germany.[180] The musical was also a huge boost for tourism in Hamburg, particularly the subdivision of St. Pauli where it accounted for 30% of all tourists. The number of overnight visitors to the city increased by over one million per year within the first five years of the show's premiere.[179]
The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a family that had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago.[45] The genus Felis diverged from the Felidae around 6–7 million years ago.[46] Members of this genus include the jungle cat (F. chaus), European wildcat (F. silvestris), African wildcat (F. lybica), Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), sand cat (F. margarita) and black-footed cat (F. nigripes).[47] Results of phylogenetic research confirm that these wild Felis species evolved through sympatric or parapatric speciation, whereas the domestic cat evolved through artificial selection.[48]
After the overture, the cats gather on stage and describe the Jellicle tribe and its purpose ("Jellicle Songs for Jellicle Cats"). The cats (who break the fourth wall throughout the show) then notice that they are being watched by a human audience, and proceed to explain how the different cats of the tribe are named ("The Naming of Cats"). This is followed by a ballet solo performed by Victoria to signal the beginning of the Jellicle Ball ("The Invitation to the Jellicle Ball"). At this moment, Munkustrap, the show's main narrator, explains that tonight the Jellicle patriarch Old Deuteronomy will make an appearance and choose one of the cats to be reborn into a new life on the Heaviside Layer.

^ Jump up to: a b Cameron-Beaumont, Charlotte; Lowe, Sarah E.; Bradshaw, John W. S. (2002). "Evidence Suggesting Pre-adaptation to Domestication Throughout the Small Felidae" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 75 (3): 361–366. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00028.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
You receive (1) one copy of the Deluxe Edition of Magical Kitties Save the Day, including Power Cards, custom dice, wooden tokens, Magical Kitties & The Alien Invasion, and all of the stretch goals unlocked during the campaign. (See Backer Level chart on the campaign page for specific content.) If you will want your rewards shipped to an address in Canada, please select this reward.
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]

If you’re a roleplayer with years of experience, Magical Kitties makes it easy to introduce your friends and family your favorite hobby. But if you’ve never played a roleplaying game before, Magical Kitties Save the Day makes it easy to try something new! Between The Big Adventure, “The Game Master’s First Adventure,” and the Kitty Tips! you’ll find throughout every book, it’ll be like we’re right there by your side the whole time.


Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
The show was staged at the Det Ny Teater in Copenhagen, Denmark, in the 2002–2003 season.[201] This Danish production was translated by Adam Price and was one of the largest theatrical productions ever mounted in the country at the time with 100 performers, musicians and stagehands.[202] The first non-replica production of Cats was approved for a Polish production at the Teatr Muzyczny Roma in Warsaw.[203] Set in an abandoned film studio instead of a junkyard, the Polish version opened in January 2004 and closed in 2010.[204][205][206] The Gothenburg opera house staged a production with a Swedish-language script by Ingela Forsman; this version was reimagined to take place in an abandoned fairground and played from September 2006 to February 2007.[207] Other productions were also staged at the Divadlo Milenium in Prague from 2004 to 2005,[188] and a Norwegian revival at the Chat Noir in Oslo in 2009.[208] The first Italian-language production toured Italy in the 2009–2010 season.[209]
Brigette Indelicato is a full-time graphic designer, art director, and creative consultant specializing in board game graphic design and logo design. Credits include War Chest, Star Trek: Galactic Enterprises, Dungeon Hustle, and Kibble Scuffle. She lives in Philadelphia with her husband and two orange cats, Dax and Odo, named after her favorite Star Trek characters. You can find her work at www.brigetteidesign.com or say hello on twitter at @brigetteidesign.
In Magical Kitties Save the Day, one player — known as the Game Master (GM) — has a very special role. They describe the world in which the magical kitties live to the other players and, when the kitties take action, they use the rules of the game to figure out what happens next. Magical Kitties also includes “Magical Kitties & The Game Master’s First Adventure.” Just as The Big Adventure will walk new players through how to play the game, “The Game Master’s First Adventure” will walk first-time Game Masters through how to run the game for their friends and family.
By 2012, the royalty payments from Cats to the Eliot estate had totaled an estimated $100 million.[294] Valerie Eliot used a portion of this money to establish the literary charity Old Possum's Practical Trust, and to set up the T. S. Eliot Prize which has since become "the most coveted award in poetry".[337][338] Cats also turned things around for the independent British publishing house Faber and Faber. As the publisher of Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats, royalties of up to £1 million annually[316] kept the then-struggling Faber afloat during the 1980s.[339] Moreover, the musical led to a surge in the sales of Eliot's book.[1] The success of Cats led Faber to turn another of their literary properties, Ted Hughes' The Iron Man, into a 1989 musical of the same name.[340]
After the fight, Rum Tum Tugger calls upon the magician Mr. Mistoffelees for help ("Magical Mr. Mistoffelees"). Known as the "original conjuring cat", Mr. Mistoffelees can perform feats of magic that no other cat can do. He displays his magical powers in a dance solo and uses them to restore the lights and bring back Old Deuteronomy. Now, the Jellicle Choice can be made.
Meet our newest fosters from The Kitten House Rescue Adoption Center Can you believe that they are all girls❣️ We bottle fed them for 2 weeks. Thankfully they a...re now on soft food. These precious little angels are still in kitten quarantine. They have made they way our of our jacuzzi tub and now occupy the master bathroom. Let the fun begin! 😹Fostering Saves Lives, we knead you😽
Felines are natural carnivores and do not intentionally consume large quantities of carbohydrates. The domestic cat's liver has adapted to the lack of carbohydrates in the diet by using amino acids to produce glucose to fuel the brain and other tissues.[39] Studies have shown that carbohydrate digestion in young kittens is much less effective than that of a mature feline with a developed gastrointestinal tract.[40] Highly digestible carbohydrates can be found in commercial kitten food as a source of additional energy as well as a source of fiber to stimulate the immature gut tissue. Soluble fibre such as beet pulp is a common ingredient used as a fibrous stool hardener and has been proven to strengthen intestinal muscles and to thicken the gut mucosal layer to prevent diarrhea.[41]
You’ll get five (5) copies of the Deluxe Edition of Magical Kitties Save the Day, the benefits of the Make Your Kitty Magical backer level, and Atlas RPG Producer Justin Alexander will run a session of Magical Kitties Save the Day for you and up to four of your friends. If arrangements can be made to do this in person (in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Duluth, or at a convention we’re attending), we will do so. If not, the game will be run via video chat. (Scheduling subject to Atlas Games’ approval.)
Make Magical Kitties a rock star on social media and help people discover the amazing world of roleplaying games! When we reach ANY of the milestones listed above, we'll unlock the next Social Stretch Goal. We've already unlocked upgraded character sheets and a digital wallpaper pack for all backers! Go here for detailed instructions on how you can join the team!

The Japanese-language production of Cats by the Shiki Theatre Company has been playing continuously since November 1983. This production is a "slow tour" with engagements lasting for several years in each of the nine cities it has visited.[158][159] The musical premiered in a purpose-built tent theatre in Shinjuku, Tokyo,[158] with a Japanese script translated by Keita Asari, the founder of the Shiki Theatre Company.[160] There had never been a long-running stage production in Japan prior to Cats,[158] and the huge success of this production led to what the local media termed a "musical boom" in the 1980s, with other Broadway musicals quickly following suit and opening in Japan.[161]
Before Old Deuteronomy can announce his decision, Grizabella returns to the junkyard and he allows her to address the gathering. Her faded appearance and lonely disposition have little effect on her song ("Memory"). With acceptance and encouragement from Jemima and Victoria, her appeal succeeds and she is chosen to be the one to go to the Heaviside Layer and be reborn into a new Jellicle life ("Journey to the Heaviside Layer"). A tyre rises from the piles of junk, carrying Grizabella and Old Deuteronomy partway toward the sky; Grizabella then completes the journey on her own.[i] Finally, Old Deuteronomy gives his closing speech to the audience ("The Ad-dressing of Cats") and the show comes to a close.
You’ll get five (5) copies of the Deluxe Edition of Magical Kitties Save the Day, the benefits of the Make Your Kitty Magical backer level, and game creator Matthew J. Hanson will run a session of Magical Kitties Save the Day for you and up to four of your friends. If arrangements can be made to do this in person (in Minneapolis/St. Paul or at a convention Matthew is attending), we will do so. If not, the game will be run via video chat. (Scheduling subject to Atlas Games’ approval.)
Nobel laureate and Pulitzer Prize-winner Toni Morrison, the author of such acclaimed works as "Song of Solomon," "Beloved," "Jazz," and "Love," died on Monday, August 5, 2019 at the age of 88. In this profile for "CBS Sunday Morning" which aired on April 4, 2004, the writer talked with correspondent Martha Teichner about her youth and education, and about the two most important things in her life: to mother her children, and to write.
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[113][133] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[133] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[133][166] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[167][168] See also Animal psychopathology § Pica.
The first contender Munkustrap introduces is Jennyanydots ("The Old Gumbie Cat"), a large tabby cat who lazes around all day, but come nighttime, she becomes active, teaching mice and cockroaches various activities to curb their naturally destructive habits. Just as Jennyanydots finishes her song, the music changes suddenly and Rum Tum Tugger makes his extravagant entrance in front of the tribe ("The Rum Tum Tugger"). He is very fickle and unappeasable, "for he will do as he do do, and there's no doing anything about it".
Finally, the Jellicle patriarch, Old Deuteronomy, arrives before the tribe ("Old Deuteronomy"). He is a wise old cat who "has lived many lives" and is tasked with choosing which Jellicle will go to the Heaviside Layer every year. The cats put on a play for Old Deuteronomy ("The Awefull Battle of the Pekes and the Pollicles"), telling a story about two dog tribes clashing in the street and subsequently being scared away by the Great Rumpus Cat. A sombre moral from Old Deuteronomy is interrupted by a second loud crash, presumably from Macavity, which sends the alarmed cats scurrying. After a quick patrol for Macavity, Old Deuteronomy deems it a false alarm and summons the cats back as the main celebration begins ("The Jellicle Ball"), in which the cats sing and display their "Terpsichorean powers".
Cats is completely told through music with no dialogue in between the songs,[74] although there are occasions when the music accompanies spoken verse. Lloyd Webber's compositions employ an eclectic range of musical styles so as to magnify the characters' contrasting personalities.[4] For example, the rebellious Rum Tum Tugger is introduced with a rock song ("The Rum Tum Tugger"); the fallen Grizabella is accompanied by a dramatic operatic aria ("Grizabella: The Glamour Cat"); Old Deuteronomy makes his grand entrance to a lullaby-turned-anthem ("Old Deuteronomy"); and Gus' nostalgia for the past is reflected through an old-fashioned music hall number ("Gus: The Theatre Cat").[16] Many of the songs are pastiches of their respective genres, which Snelson attributes to the show's origins as a song cycle:
Napier also designed the costumes, combining cat and human features based on "hints" given in Eliot's poems, while ensuring that they did not impede the dancers' movements.[93] The costumes generally consist of a unitard, a wig that is fashioned to suggest the presence of feline ears, patches resembling body fur, and arm and leg warmers to give the performers' hands and feet a more paw-like appearance. As with the contrasting music and dance styles, the costumes and make-up are used to bring out each character's distinct personality. For example, the costume for the flirtatious Bombalurina is designed to accentuate her sexiness, while the markings on the costume for Jemima — the youngest of the tribe — resemble crayon scribbles.[24] Every character's design motif is custom-painted by hand onto a plain unitard to line up with their performer's individual body. In order to reproduce the "hand-drawn aesthetic" of Napier's original design sketches, costume painters in the original Broadway production used squeeze bottles to apply the paint. Due to the amount of dancing in Cats, most of the costume did not last longer than a few months.[96]
Influenced by the show's success in Vienna, a German production by Stella Entertainment premiered in April 1986 at the newly-renovated Operettenhaus in Hamburg.[173][179] It closed in January 2001 after 15 years, having played over 6,100 performances to 6.2 million audiences.[179][180] Cats was the first stage production in the country to be mounted without any public funding and was also the first to run for multiple years; its success established the medium as a profitable venture in Germany.[180] The musical was also a huge boost for tourism in Hamburg, particularly the subdivision of St. Pauli where it accounted for 30% of all tourists. The number of overnight visitors to the city increased by over one million per year within the first five years of the show's premiere.[179]
There have been numerous notable performers in the Japanese production, including Shintarō Sonooka as Munkustrap (original 1983 cast),[170] Kanji Ishimaru as Skimbleshanks (1992),[171] Masachika Ichimura, and Mayo Kawasaki.[172] Yoshiko Hattori (ja:服部良子) holds the production's record for the longest-appearing cast member; she played Jennyanydots in the original 1983 cast and remained in the role for 20 years with a final performance tally of 4,251.[172]
Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have preadapted them for domestication as pets. These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[57]:12–17 Captive Leopardus cats may also display affectionate behavior toward humans, but have not been domesticated.[54]
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