Besides Japan, Cats is also produced regularly in other parts of Asia. The region has hosted numerous English-language productions of the musical, beginning with a tour from 1993 to 1994 when it played in Singapore (with local actress Jacintha Abisheganaden as Grizabella),[248] Hong Kong and South Korea.[249] Cats returned to Asia from 2002 to 2004 when it visited Malaysia,[250] South Korea,[251] Shanghai,[252] Taipei and Beijing;[253][254][255] the 2004 cast included Slindile Nodangala in the role of Grizabella.[254] A touring company visited Asia again between 2007 and 2010, including stops in Taiwan,[205] Macau, and Thailand in 2007;[256] South Korea from 2007 to 2009;[257] China in 2008;[258] Singapore and Hong Kong in 2009 (with Delia Hannah playing Grizabella);[238][259][260] and Manila in 2010 (with Lea Salonga as Grizabella).[261] Cats toured Asia again from 2014 to 2015, making stops in South Korea, Singapore and Macau.[262] Two years later, another international tour was launched and is scheduled to run through 2020, with visits to South Korea from 2017 to 2018,[263] Hong Kong[264] and Taiwan in 2018,[265] China in 2018 (with Joanna Ampil as Grizabella) and 2019,[266][267] and planned stops in the Philippines and Singapore in 2019, and Malaysia in 2020.[267]
Thomas Deeny is a graphic designer who specializes in book layout and game design. His layout work can be found in roleplaying games like John Wick Presents' 7th Sea, Atlas Games' Unknown Armies and Over the Edge, MCDM Production's Strongholds and Followers, and Modiphius Entertainment’s Star Trek Adventures. He lives in a house in the middle of a spooky forest at the edge of civilization.
When you open your copy of Magical Kitties Save the Day, sitting right on top will be a copy of Magical Kitties & The Big Adventure, a solo-play graphic novel adventure illustrated by Garth Graham. This action-packed comic book is also a full scenario! Within moments of opening the box, you’ll be able to create your magical kitty and go on an amazing adventure that will also teach readers of all ages how to play the full game!
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[231] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[232] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[233] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[234] and ground-nesting,[231] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Paul Dean is a writer. In addition to co-founding the board games site/show Shut Up & Sit Down and co-creating the latest edition of the Paranoia RPG, Paul has also contributed to or been featured in publications and outlets as diverse as The Telegraph, Eurogamer, IGN, How We Get to Next, The New Statesmen, The Guardian, RockPaperShotgun, and BBC Radio. (He’s even got a Cadbury’s Children’s Poetry Collection.) Later this year his scenario “We’ll Temporarily Have Paris” will appear in the Feng Shui 2 adventure anthology Have Fist, Will Travel.
One of Nunn's stipulations for agreeing to direct Practical Cats was that actress Judi Dench would be cast in the musical. Lloyd Webber was happy to oblige given her credentials and so Dench joined the company in the dual roles of Grizabella and Jennyanydots. Former Royal Ballet principal dancer Wayne Sleep was offered the part of Mr. Mistoffelees after Lloyd Webber and Mackintosh attended a performance by his dance troupe, one of the many dance showcases they saw in preparation for the musical. Casting for the other roles began in November 1980, with auditions held across the UK for dancers who could also sing and act. There was an initial disagreement over the casting of Nicholas as Rum Tum Tugger; Nunn had misgivings about the actor's laid-back attitude but eventually yielded to Lloyd Webber, Mackintosh and Lynne, all of whom were keen on Nicholas for the role. Sarah Brightman, who had already made a name for herself with the chart hit "I Lost My Heart to a Starship Trooper", arranged a private audition and was cast in an as-then undecided role. By December, the full cast had been assembled.[18]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[91] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[92] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[93] Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[91]

The London production ran for 21 years and 8,949 performances, while the Broadway production ran for 18 years and 7,485 performances, making Cats the longest-running musical in both theatre districts for a number of years. As of 2019, it remains the sixth-longest-running West End show and the fourth-longest-running Broadway show. Cats has since been revived in the West End twice and on Broadway once. It has also been translated into multiple languages and performed around the world many times. Long-running foreign productions include a 15-year run at the Operettenhaus in Hamburg that played over 6,100 performances, as well as an ongoing run in a purpose-built theatre in Japan that has played over 10,000 performances since it opened in 1983.
Felines are carnivores and have adapted to animal-based diets and low carbohydrate inclusion. Kittens are categorized in a growth life stage, and have high energy and protein requirements.[23] When feeding a kitten, it is often recommended to use highly digestible ingredients and various components to aid in development in order to produce a healthy adult.[24] In North America, diets certified by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) are accepted as adequate nutrition, thus kitten diets should be AAFCO approved to ensure full supplementation.[25] Key components of the diet are high fat content to meet caloric requirements of growth, high protein to meet requirements for muscle growth as well as supplementation of certain nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid to benefit the development of the brain and optimization of cognition.[26]

You’ve never played a roleplaying game, either? Purr-fect! Magical Kitties includes a lot of tools — including a solo play module so that you can start playing within moments of opening the box! — and guidance for both first-time roleplayers and first-time GMs. Whether you’ve played board games with roleplaying elements like Mice & Mystics or T.I.M.E. Stories, watched actual play videos, or just think roleplaying games sound like a lot of fun and you want to give them a try, Magical Kitties can be your first step into a larger world.
Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.[140]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[141][142] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[142] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[131]
Following the closure of the original West End production, a nationwide tour embarked in 2003 with Chrissie Hammond starring as Grizabella,[146][147] until Dianne Pilkington took over the role in 2006.[148] Hammond reprised the role on tour again from 2007 to 2008.[149][150] A UK tour of Cats launched in February 2013 at the Edinburgh Playhouse with Joanna Ampil as Grizabella,[151][152] running through 2014 before transferring to the West End.[153] In between its limited West End runs, the musical returned to the Blackpool Opera House Theatre in 2015, this time starring Jane McDonald as Grizabella.[154][155] After the second West End revival, the production toured the UK in 2016 with Anita Louise Combe as Grizabella and Marcquelle Ward as Rum Tum Tugger.[156][157]
Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[262] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[263] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[262][264] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[263]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[123] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[124] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[124]

Under the direction of Peter Weck, the first German-language production of Cats opened in September 1983 at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna, Austria. In 1988, the show transferred to the newly-renovated Ronacher Theatre where it ran for another two years before closing on its seventh anniversary in September 1990.[112][173] The Vienna production played a total of 2,040 performances to more than 2.3 million audiences.[174]


In the original London production, Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer were characters in their own right and sang their eponymous song themselves as a singsong-style duet. When the show transferred to Broadway, the song was instead sung in the third-person, with Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer as puppets being magically controlled by Mr. Mistoffelees. Their number was also rewritten to be faster and more upbeat, alternating between vaudeville-style verses and a "manic patter" section. Eventually, the Broadway version of the song was rewritten to allow Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer to once again sing their own song as full characters.[388]
The development of Cats was also plagued by financial troubles. Mackintosh struggled to raise the £450,000 ($1.16 million[27]) needed to stage the musical in the West End as major investors were sceptical of the show's premise and refused to back it. Lloyd Webber personally underwrote the musical and took out a second mortgage on his house for the down payment of the theatre. He later recalled that if Cats had been a commercial failure, it would have left him in financial ruin.[28] The remaining capital was eventually financed by small investments procured from 220 individuals through newspaper advertisements.[1][12] After the musical became a massive hit, the rate of return for these investors was estimated to have exceeded 3,500%.[29]
One of the first things you should do with your new cat, if not the very first, is take him in for an exam. This trip is almost as important for the owner as it is the kitten, because it not only tests for health issues like birth defects, parasites, and feline leukemia, but it allows you to ask those all important questions including advice on litterbox training your kitten.
The first UK and Ireland tour opened in May 1989 at the Opera House Theatre in Blackpool. The cast for this tour included Marti Webb as Grizabella, Rosemarie Ford as Bombalurina and John Partridge as Alonzo.[120] Following a six-month engagement in Blackpool that broke the theatre's box office record and was seen by around 450,000 people,[142] the production moved to the Edinburgh Playhouse for three months, before closing in May 1990 after another two months at the Point Theatre in Dublin.[120] A second national tour launched in June 1993 at the Bristol Hippodrome,[143] featuring Rosemarie Ford as Grizabella, Robin Cousins as Munkustrap, Simon Rice as Mistoffelees and Tony Monopoly as Old Deuteronomy.[144] The tour closed at the Manchester Opera House in December 1995.[145]
Napier also designed the costumes, combining cat and human features based on "hints" given in Eliot's poems, while ensuring that they did not impede the dancers' movements.[93] The costumes generally consist of a unitard, a wig that is fashioned to suggest the presence of feline ears, patches resembling body fur, and arm and leg warmers to give the performers' hands and feet a more paw-like appearance. As with the contrasting music and dance styles, the costumes and make-up are used to bring out each character's distinct personality. For example, the costume for the flirtatious Bombalurina is designed to accentuate her sexiness, while the markings on the costume for Jemima — the youngest of the tribe — resemble crayon scribbles.[24] Every character's design motif is custom-painted by hand onto a plain unitard to line up with their performer's individual body. In order to reproduce the "hand-drawn aesthetic" of Napier's original design sketches, costume painters in the original Broadway production used squeeze bottles to apply the paint. Due to the amount of dancing in Cats, most of the costume did not last longer than a few months.[96]
Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[130][131] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[132] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[87] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[87] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality and always hunt alone.[133]
Taurine is an essential amino acid found only in animal tissues and cannot be produced in sufficient amounts by the cat.[36] As it is an indispensable amino acid, it must be provided exogenously through the diet at 10 mg/kg bodyweight/day.[37] Kittens deprived of taurine can experience poor growth[36] and can result in retinal degeneration in cats.[38]

Domestic cats are generally smaller than wildcats in both skull and limb measurements.[58] Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb),[48] although many breeds have a wide range of sizes, with male American Shorthairs ranging from 3 to 7 kg (7 to 20 lb).[59] Some cat breeds, such as the Maine Coon, occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The average feral adult male weighs 4 kg (9 lb), and the average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length.[63]

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